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Homework Help: Meteor Showers

Homework Help: Meteor Showers

National Geographic Kids Meteors

Have you ever seen a “shooting” or “falling” star? These streaks of light are not actually stars at all, but space rocks falling through the earth’s atmosphere. These rocks are called meteoroids or meteors. As the meteor falls it rubs against particle’s in the earth’s atmosphere which creates friction, making the meteor extremely hot. Usually, the meteors become so hot they burn up and disappear before hitting the earth. The flame of that burning up is what we see and what makes meteors look like a star falling out of the sky. If a meteor does survive its journey through the atmosphere and lands on the earth, it is called a meteorite.

At certain times of year we can see a lot of meteors all at once because the earth is passing through a field of space rocks. These times of year are called “meteor showers” because so many space rocks are falling through the earth’s atmosphere at one time. Each year in late summer the Earth passes through a trail of dust and debris left by an ancient comet called Comet Swift-Tuttle. This creates a lot of meteors and is called the Perseid Meteor Shower because the meteors look like they are coming from the constellation Perseus.

In 2018 the Perseid Meteor Shower will occur from July 17 to Aug. 24. The best way to see meteors is to go outside after dark, lie on your back and look straight up. You might have to wait. Bring a good snack – like popcorn! You  might also like to know about solar eclipses.

TCM Meteor

 

This meteorite is an Artifact at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.

“Meteorites are one of the few extraterrestrial, from outer space, materials scientists have to study. Most meteorites found on the ground are iron, which are very dense and appear quite different from ordinary rock. This is a Gibeon meteorite made up mostly of iron and nickel. These meteorites resulted in a huge meteor shower that occurred thousands of years ago. Upon hitting he earth’s atmosphere, a large iron mass (or masses) fragmented, showering down to Earth. These fragments were first reported in 1838, with more fragments showing up in following years as Europeans moved in.”

 

 

Websites:

Science in Context: Comets, Meteors & Asteroids is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home with your IndyPL Library Card.It will show you biographies, magazines, videos and more about Comets, Meteors & Asteroids.​


Books:

Shooting StarsAsteroids, Comets and MeteoroidsComets Meteors and AsteroidsHow the Meteorite Got to the MuseumMeteor ShowersShooting StarsMy Friend the StarfinderOlivia Wishes on a StarOne Starry Night
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Juneteenth & Indy Book Fest – Central Library

Juneteenth & Indy Book Fest – Central Library

June 19th is Juneteenth, a day that commemorates the end of slavery. Why this day? On June 19, 1865 Union soldiers arrived in Texas and spread the word that President Lincoln had delivered his Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863…two YEARS earlier. Back in those days, it took news A LOT longer to travel! Plus, in this case, there were people who deliberately kept the news from traveling. Here is the timeline:

1. January 1, 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order made by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. It declared slaves in the Confederacy free. It affected some slaves, but not all of them.

  • 2. June 19, 1865 Freedom Day in Texas – Texas was very remote back then and news traveled slow. It also took a long time for the Union army to makes its way to Texas. On June 19, a Union General read out loud “General Order No. 3”, announcing the total emancipation of slaves in Texas. The day became known as “Juneteenth” (“June” plus “nineteenth”) and is widely celebrated today in Texas and across the country, as an important day commemorating the freeing of slaves in America.

3. December 6, 1865 The Thirteenth Amendment This amendment to the Constitution completely abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as the punishment of a crime.

Join us on Saturday, June 16, Juneteenth, at Central Library for our 1st Annual Indy Book Fest –  You are invited for activities that celebrate the African American experience.  With the theme, “Words of Strength: A Juneteenth Celebration,” there will be indoor and outdoor presentations throughout the Library including:

  • arts & crafts
  • ethnic food
  • writers, spoken word poets
  • visual artists
  • storytellers
  • musicians
  • writer’s workshop
  • local book club conference
  • coloring and face painting for kids
  • author signings
  • vendor merchandise

Books:

Abraham Lincoln the Great EmancipatorBen and the Emancipation ProclamationDays of JubileeEmancipation Proclamation Lincoln and the Dawn of LibertyEmancipation ProclamationFifty Cents and a Dream Young Booker T. WashingtonFreedom's Gifts a Juneteenth StoryHope's GiftHow Abraham Lincoln Ended SlaveryJuneteenthJuneteenthJuneteenthJuneteenthJuneteenth JamboreeLift Every Voice and SingThe Story of JuneteenthWhen Were the Slaves First Set Free After the Civil War
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Check Out BirdIndy Trunks

Check Out BirdIndy Trunks

BirdyIndyTrunks 500

Here are some ideas to get you started exploring and having fun in your own wild backyard:

If you want to explore a little further than your own backyard here are some great places for bird watching right here in Indianapolis:

E-books:

IndyPLLibraryCard100
Use your indyPL Library Card number and PIN to check out FREE Online eBooks. Click on a book jacket & enter your Library Card number and PIN to borrow. What’s My PIN?
Crinkleroot's Book of 25 Birds You Should KnowBirdology

Print Books:

Animal Architects BirdsBeautiful BirdsBird WatcherBirds and Their FeathersBirds Discovering North American SpeciesBirdsBuilding BirdhousesCool Birds and BugsLearn to Draw Birds and ButterfliesLook Up Bird Watching in your Own BackyardMy Book of WordsYoung Birders Guide
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Author Spotlight: Beverly Cleary

Author Spotlight: Beverly Cleary

Beverly Cleary has been a presence in children’s literature since her first book, Henry Huggins, was published in 1950, more than 65 years ago! Although her last book, Ramona’s World, was published in 1999 long before any of her current readers like you were born, she has continued to inspire generations of us to fall in love with Ramona, Henry Huggins, and Ralph S. Mouse.

During her long career, she has been honored with a Newbery Medal (Dear Mr. Henshaw, 1984), 2 Newbery honors (Ramona and Her Father, 1978; Ramona Quimby, Age 8, 1982), the National Book Award (Ramona and Her Mother, 1981), among many accolades, and was recognized with the Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal (1975) for “a substantial and lasting contribution to literature for children.”

Her birthday, April 12, is recognized as National Drop Everything and Read Day (D.E.A.R). So on this day give Beverly the gift she wants for her birthday, a gift that is for you too! Drop everything and READ!

Read Right Now! Download & Stream for Kids

Websites:

Drop Everything And Read150

Video:

Favorite Series from Beverly Clearly:

Henry Huggins 1. Henry Huggins
2. Henry & Beezus
3. Henry & Ribsy
4. Henry & the Paper Route
5. Henry & the Clubhouse
6. Ribsy
Beezus and Ramona 1. Beezus & Ramona
2. Ramona the Pest
3. Ramona the Brave
4. Ramona & Her Father
5. Ramona & Her Mother
6. Ramona Quimby, Age 8
7. Ramona Forever
8. Ramona’s World
The Mouse and the Motorcycle 1. The Mouse & the Motorcycle
2. Runaway Ralph
3. Ralph S. Mouse
Dear Mr Henshaw 1. Dear Mr. Henshaw
2. Strider
Ellen Tebbits 1. Ellen Tebbits
2. Otis Spofford
Emilys Runaway Imagination 1. Emily’s Runaway Imagination
2. Mitch & Amy
3. Socks
4. Muggie Maggie
FIfteen 1. Fifteen
2. The Luckiest Girl
3. Jean & Johnny
4. Sister of the Bride

One Rainy Sunday Beverly Cleary Quote

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Read Thru History: Black History Timeline 1954-1968

Read Thru History: Black History Timeline 1954-1968

More Homework Help
Read Through History: Civil Rights Timeline to 1954
Read Through History: Civil Right Timeline Since 1968

To the Mountaintop was written by Charlayne Hunter-Gault. Charlayne was one of the first black students admitted to the University of Georgia in 1961. In this book, Charlayne tells her own story as well as the stories of other people, children and young adults like her, who played very important roles in the Civil Rights Movement. It is an interesting book because she was so young. We can listen to her own story in her own words. Eyewitness accounts help us experience an event firsthand. We can take a moment to walk in someone else’s shoes. By reading the accounts of people who who were alive at the time, we can empathize with their suffering and understand why the Civil Rights Movement was so important to ensure their safety and freedom.

In To the Mountaintop, one of the people Charlayne talks about is Ruby Bridges, the first black child to desegregate an all-white elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Ruby was in elementary school, Charlayne was in college, both were brave enough to do something first. Ruby, in particular, became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement. An icon is a person or Problem We All Live With painting by Norman Rockwellthing that represents something bigger. Ruby was a little girl, but became a symbol of the struggle for Civil Rights for all black people in our country. One of the things that helped make Ruby an icon is this painting by American painter Norman Rockwell. The painting shows Ruby being escorted to school by four US Marshals. Four. It took four law enforcement officers to protect her. That is really hard to understand; that a child would need escorted to school like that. The painting is called “The Problem We All Live With“. In 2011 President Barack Obama arranged to borrow the painting from the Norman Rockwell museum. He had it hung outside the Oval Office and invited Ruby to come see it. Watch this video carefully to hear President Obama say something important:

“I think it’s fair to say that if it hadn’t been for you guys, I might not be here and we wouldn’t be looking at this together.”

He said something very similar during his campaign for President in 2007.

“I’m here because somebody marched. I’m here because you all sacrificed for me. I stand on the shoulders of giants.” ~Speech, Selma Voting Rights March Commemoration in Selma, Alabama, March 4, 2007

Listed below is a timeline of important events of the Civil Rights Movement. These events culminated with the passing of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965. For each event a few books are listed, both fiction and non-fiction, that bring the events and people to life. Take a book walk through history to learn about these fascinating, determined, brave people who stood together so no one stood alone.


1954: Brown Vs. Board of Education was a landmark United States Supreme Court case. The Court declared state laws allowing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. It was a major victory and important turning point for the Civil Rights Movement. The decision by the Court was unanimous (9–0). Unanimous means all of the supreme court justices agreed.


Brown v. Board of Education a Fight for Simple JusticeRemember the Journey to School Integration

1955: The Lynching of Emmett Till

Emmett Till was a 14-year-old African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi in 1955 after allegedly offending a white woman in a grocery store. His killers were acquitted. The trial and acquittal drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African-Americans in the United States. Emmett’s death became a rallying cry that helped people all over the country realize the critical importance of the Civil Rights Movement.


Midnight Without a Moon

1955-1956: Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a protest against racially segregated seats on the public buses in Montgomery, Alabama. It sounds very strange today, but back then it was actually illegal for a black person and a white person to sit next to each other on a bus. The bus riding rules up to this point stated that African Americans could not be hired as bus drivers, had to ride in seats at the back of the bus, and had to give up their seat to a white person.The boycott began when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white person.


Rosa Parks: My StoryRosaThe Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott in PhotographsClaudette Colvin Twice Toward Justice12 Incredible Facts about the Montgomery Bus BoycottBack of the Bus

1957: Little Rock Central High School Integration

The Little Rock Nine was a group of African American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Even though the U.S. Supreme Court had already unanimously said in Brown v. Board of Education that all laws establishing segregated schools were unconstitutional, the students were initially prevented from entering the school. President Eisenhower then sent the 101st Airborne and the Arkansas National Guard to escort the students to school.


The Lions of Little RockThe Little Rock nine: a primary source exploration of the battle for school integrationThe story of the Little Rock Nine and school desegregation in photographsLittle Rock girl 1957 : how a photograph changed the fight for integration

1960: Greensboro, North Carolina Sit Ins 

The Greensboro Sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests against the segregated seating at lunch counters in restaurants. In Greensboro, North Carolina, four men sat down at the all-white lunch counter but no one would take their order. They sat quietly until the counter closed. The next day, joined by more people, they did the same thing. More people joined each day at more restaurants and in more cities. Sales at the boycotted stores went way down and gradually, the stores abandoned their segregation rules. Similar protests helped change segregation policies at libraries, beaches, parks, swimming pools and museums. When the Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally passed, it ordered desegregation of all public places.


Sit-in : how four friends stood up by sitting downFreedom on the MenuMake a ChangeThese HandsSeeds of Freedom

1960: Ruby Bridges New Orleans, Louisiana

Ruby Bridges was the first black child to desegregate an all-white elementary school in Louisiana in 1960. Bridges and her mother were escorted to school by four federal marshals for the entire school year.


The Story of Ruby BridgesThrough My Eyes

1961: Freedom Riders

Freedom Riders were people who rode on buses to protest segregated seating. The United States Supreme Court had already ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional, but the law was not enforced. In protest, mixed racial groups rode the buses together to challenge the rules. The riders drew attention to the states that were not following federal law.


Night on FirePreaching to the ChickensThe story of the civil rights freedom rides in photographsShe Stood for Freedom

1963: Birmingham Children’s March

Birmingham Children’s March was a march by hundreds of school children in Birmingham, Alabama, May 2–5, 1963. The children left school and walked downtown to talk to the mayor about segregation. Many children were arrested. Fire hoses and police dogs were used to stop the march. This event compelled President Kennedy to publicly support federal civil rights legislation and led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964.


The Youngest MarcherWe've Got a JobBirmingham 1963When the Children Marched

1963: March on Washington

The March on Washington took place in Washington D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to stand up for civil rights for African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his historic “I Have a Dream” speech. The march helped pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


Voices from the March on WashingtonAs Good As AnybodyWe MarchI Have a DreamMarch On! The Day My Brother Martin Changed the WorldMartin's Dream DayThe March on Washington Primary Source ExplorationThe Story of the Civil Rights March on Washington in PhotographsMarching for Freedom

1963: 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

The 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama on Sunday, September 15, 1963. Four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted a bomb beneath the steps at the church, killing four little girls and injuring 22 others.


A Thousand Never EversThe Watsons Go to BirminghamBirmingham Sunday

1964: Civil Rights Act

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.


Glory BeThe Civil Rights Act of 1964 a Primary Source Exploration>Freedom SummerFreedom Summer

1965: Voting Marches & the Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Selma to Montgomery Voting Marches were three protest marches along the 54-mile highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital, Montgomery, Alabama. The marches were organized to support African-American citizens who wanted to exercise their constitutional right to vote. The marches contributed to the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, federal legislation that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.


The Story of the Selma Voting Rights Marches in PhotographsBlood BrotherTurning 15 on the Road to FreedomRevolutionLillian's Right to VoteGranddaddy's TurnBecause They Marched

To learn even more about fascinating and inspiring black history makers, visit the Center for Black Literature & Culture at Central Library. The Center is dedicated to celebrating the vibrant and resilient heritage and triumphs of those born of African roots.

WeNeedDiverseBooks LogoTo get young people engaged, one of the things they need is to see themselves in books. It is important for all of us to see ourselves in books, because that encourages us to read in a different way and encourages us to write more.” ~ Dr. Jerrie Cobb Scott Founder of the African American Read-in #weneeddiversebooks

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