# Science Experiment: Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Science Experiment: Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. He was born in 1642 and died in 1727. This was around the time of the early colonization of North America: the founding of some of the original 13 colonies, the French and Indiana wars and the Salem witch trials, but before the American Revolution.

Newton is best known for three very important principles of physics called classical mechanics. These principles describe how things move and are referred to today by his name – Newton’s Laws of Motion. There are three of them, Newtons First, Second and Third Law of Motion. Today’s experiment will demonstrate Newton’s Second Law of Motion.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. Riding your bicycle is a good example of this law of motion at work. When you push on the pedals of your bicycle, your bicycle moves, or accelerates. You are increasing the acceleration of the bicycle by applying force to the pedals. Your leg muscles pushing on the pedals is the force that is making the bike move.

Newton’s Second Law also states that the greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). Say you have two identical bicycles that each have a basket. One bicycle has an empty basket. One bicycle has a basket full of bricks. If you try to ride each bicycle and you push on the pedals with the exact same strength, you will be able to accelerate the bike with the empty basket MORE than the bike with the basket full of bricks. The bricks add mass to the second bicycle. With bricks in the basket, you would have to apply more force to the pedals to make your bicycle move.

Comet Cratering Demonstration

TryScience Comet Cratering

We gathered the items suggested by TryScience and gave this one a try. We put several spoonfuls of flour in the bottom of a pie plate and spread it out to make a level surface. Then we sprinkled a thin layer of hot chocolate mix on top of the flour. We held a marble above the pie plate and dropped it. The marbles made perfect sphere imprints in the flour.

Comet Cratering Science Project:

Use three different sizes of marbles to turn this demonstration into an experiment. Remember that in a science experiment you want to test only ONE variable. In this experiment you only want to change the size/weight of the object that is falling. You want to make sure each object is the same shape. The marbles are all spheres. They are all the same shape. If we changed the shape of the object too, it would be hard to measure the difference in the impact craters. You also need to pay close attention to how far away the marbles are from the surface of the flour before you let go of them. Use a ruler to make sure you drop each marble from exactly one foot above the surface of the flour. The shape of the objects and the distance the objects are away from the surface are the SAME. Only the size of the objects are different.

Do the experiment three times using the same three marbles that are the same shape and dropped from the same height, but are different in size. The three times you repeat the experiment are called trials. Make a chart to keep track of the results. After each trial measure the width of the impact crater made by each of the three marbles. Which marble makes the largest impact crater? Which marble makes the deepest impact crater? Why do you think so?

## Websites, Activities & Printables:

Science in Context: Newton’s Second Law of Motion is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home. Login using your IndyPL library card number. The Science in Context database will show you articles, images and videos to help you learn about Newton’s Second Law.​

You can ask a math and science expert for homework help by calling the Ask Rose Homework Hotline. They provide FREE math and science homework help to Indiana students in grades 6-12.

## Books:

Use your indyPL Library Card to check out books at any of our locations, or check out e-books and e-audiobooks from home right to your device. Click on a book jacket below to request a book or download it. Need help? Call or ask a Library staff member at any of our locations, text a librarian at 317 333-6877, or leave a comment.

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# Science Experiment: Density – Buoyancy

Science Experiment: Density – Buoyancy

Every object on earth is made of atoms. Gravity pulls these atoms to the earth. You can measure the pull of gravity on an object. We call that measurement weight.

A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together. Density  is how close together the molecules of a substance are or how much mass a substance has in a given space.

For example, if you have one cup of jelly beans and one cup of marshmallows, the jelly beans have more mass because there is more “stuff” compacted into the cup. The marshmallows have less mass because the molecules of marshmallows or NOT close together. Marshmallows are mostly air.

If you put each of those cups in a microwave to melt the jelly beans and the marshmallows, the sugar and water molecules that make up the jelly beans would almost fill the cup to the top. The sugar and water molecules that makes up the marshmallows would only fill the cup a little bit because marshmallows have less mass, they are mostly made of air. Materials with more density weigh more. A cup of jelly beans weighs more than a cup of marshmallows.

For an object to be buoyant, or float, it must have less density that what it is floating in, or, it has to have something attached to it that helps it float – like you with a life jacket on.

To investigate buoyancy, try this experiment:

You Will Need:

• Drinking Glass
• Clear Soda
• Water
• Ten Raisins

Fill one clear glass up with water and drop in five raisins. Fill another clear glass up with clear soda like sprite or 7up. Drop in five raisins. What happens when you drop the raisins in? What a few minutes – now what is happening to the raisins in each glass? Can you guess why the raisins are behaving differently?

Raisins are heavier than the water in the drinking glass. The raisins are also heavier than the soda in the drinking glass. At first, both sets of raisins sink to the bottom of the glass, they don’t float.

But the soda has little air bubbles in it – the carbonation. When there are enough of these little carbonated balloons (the bubbles) stuck to the raisins the bubbles lift the raisins to the surface making the raisin float. The bubbles are like little temporary life jackets! When the bubbles pop and the gas inside them escapes into the air…the raisins don’t have anything to help them float anymore and they sink to the bottom of the glass again.

Science Experiment Idea: Try putting other small objects in soda to see if the bubbles will attach to them and help them float to the surface of the soda. Try a penny, a toothpick, a peanut, or a skittle. Can you find something that the bubbles will float to the surface like the raisin?

## Websites, Activities & Printables:

More IndyPL Experiments about Density:

Science in Context: Bouyancy is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home. Login using your IndyPL library card number. The Science in Context database will show you articles, images and videos to help you learn about bouyancy.​

You can also ask a math and science expert for homework help by calling the Ask Rose Homework Hotline. They provide FREE math and science homework help to Indiana students in grades 6-12.

## Books:

Use your indyPL Library Card to check out books at any of our locations, or check out e-books and e-audiobooks from home right to your device. Click on a book jacket below to request a book or download it. Need help? Call or ask a Library staff member at any of our locations, text a librarian at 317 333-6877, or leave a comment.

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# Science Experiment: Transpiration – Flower Transformation

Science Experiment: Transpiration – Flower Transformation

Plant parts like petals, leaves and stems have little holes called stomata – kind of like the pores in our skin. When stomata open, water escapes. When this happens the water is replaced by the plant absorbing water up from the roots into the stem and leaves and petals. As water evaporates from the leaves and petals more water is sucked up through the stem from the roots. This is called tranpiration…kind of like a person sucking on a straw. What You Need:

• White Flowers (Carnation, Queen Anne’s Lace)
• Food Coloring
• Water
• Vase

Fill a vase with water. Add food coloring to the water. Collect or buy some white flowers. Make a fresh cut at the end of the flower stem and put the flowers in the water. Check on the flowers every hour. How are the petals changing?

## Websites, Activities & Printables:

Science in Context: Transpiration is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home. Login using your IndyPL library card number. The Science in Context database will show you articles, images and videos to help you learn about transpiration.​

You can also ask a math and science expert for homework help by calling the Ask Rose Homework Hotline. They provide FREE math and science homework help to Indiana students in grades 6-12.

## Books:

Use your indyPL Library Card to check out books at any of our locations, or check out e-books and e-audiobooks from home right to your device. Click on a book jacket below to request a book or download it. Need help? Call or ask a Library staff member at any of our locations, text a librarian at 317 333-6877, or leave a comment.

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# Science Experiment: Air Pressure – Do Not Open Bottle

Science Experiment: Air Pressure – Do Not Open Bottle

Even though air seems like nothing, it really is something. Gases like air, even though they are not visible to our eyes, are made up of molecules just like solid objects. These molecules are pulled toward the earth by gravity.

Earth is surrounded by a layer of air that is heavy. That layer of air exerts pressure on the surface of the earth, a lot of pressure. Our bodies are used to it so it doesn’t bother us. In fact, we are so used to it that what bothers us is when the air pressure is gone.

The higher you go in the atmosphere, the less air pressure there is because the “thickness” of the air is less the higher you go. That’s why airplanes have “pressurized” cabins. We can’t survive in too little air pressure.

What You Need:

• Empty Water Bottle
• Thumb Tack
• Water

As the bottle is filled with water the water pushes any air left in the bottle out. When you put the lid on no air can get in the bottle either. Air on the outside of the bottle is pushing on it as well as the lid. The small holes in the bottle aren’t big enough for air to sneak in and increase the air pressure on the water…but when you open the cap more air can get in and press down on the water making it leak out the holes.

## Websites, Activities & Printables:

Science in Context: Air Pressure and Atmospheric Circulation & Wind is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home. Login using your IndyPL library card number. The Science in Context database will show you articles, images and videos to help you learn about chromatography.​

You can also ask a math and science expert for homework help by calling the Ask Rose Homework Hotline. They provide FREE math and science homework help to Indiana students in grades 6-12.

## Books:

Use your indyPL Library Card to check out books at any of our locations, or check out e-books and e-audiobooks from home right to your device. Click on a book jacket below to request a book or download it. Need help? Call or ask a Library staff member at any of our locations, text a librarian at 317 333-6877, or leave a comment.

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# Science Experiment: Sound Waves – Salt Sound Meter

Science Experiment: Sound Waves – Salt Sound Meter

Sound is vibrations that move through the air or through liquids or solids. The sounds we usually hear are vibrations that move through the air. Your voice is the vibration of your vocal chords. The tiny bones inside your ears pick up sound vibrations in the air and send those messages to your brain. You can actually see sound…if you know how to look.

What You Need:

• Large Bowl
• Plastic Wrap
• Salt
• Water
• a Whistle
• 2 Large Metal Pans
• Anything That Makes Noise!

Stretch a large piece of plastic wrap over a bowl and pull it tight on all the edges. Sprinkle salt on top of the plastic wrap. Now blow a whistle or clap your hands or bang two objects together – how does the salt behave? Now clean the salt off and try putting drops of water on top of the plastic wrap. Can you make the water move with sound?

Science Experiment Idea:

Try different noisemakers to see which one will move the salt the most. Make marks on the platic wrap with a sharpie to help you see how much the salt moves. Try different volumes of sound both loud and soft as well as high and low pitches. For example, can you hum and make the salt move? Can you scream and make the salt move? How about a kazoo? A whistle? Which kind of sound do you think will move the salt the most? After testing, were you right?

## Websites, Activities & Printables:

Science in Context: Sound and Sound Waves is a database you can use in any IndyPL Library Branch or at home. Login using your IndyPL library card number. The Science in Context database will show you articles, images and videos to help you learn about sound and sound waves.​

You can also ask a math and science expert for homework help by calling the Ask Rose Homework Hotline. They provide FREE math and science homework help to Indiana students in grades 6-12.

## Books:

Use your indyPL Library Card to check out books at any of our locations, or check out e-books and e-audiobooks from home right to your device. Click on a book jacket below to request a book or download it. Need help? Call or ask a Library staff member at any of our locations, text a librarian at 317 333-6877, or leave a comment.

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